Bhagavad Gita Chapter 1 – Arjuna’s Despondency
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Arjuna’s Despondency (Lamenting the Consequence of War)
Lord Sri Krishna, as agreed to be a charioteer of Arjuna in the war, arrived in a striking chariot yoked with white horses. All the powerful and brave warriors from both eh sides were on the battlefield. The battlefiled was coverd with huge army on both the sides along with tents, machines, weapons horses, elephants and chariots and wagons.
The war was began with a loud sound made by blowing hundreds of counches. Arjuna also blew his conch named “Devadatta”. Bhima blew his counce named “Paundra”. Following them all other great warriors blew their own conches.
Arjuna asked Lord Sri Krishna to place his chariot between both the armies to check out the opponent army. Saying thus Lord Sri Krishna placed the chariot inbetween the two army. As Arjuna was watching the opponent army he was shocked to see his own relatives, teachers, friends and other dear once ready to fight against him.
Arjuna got confused, despondent and nervous. He felt not to participate in the war as he did not liked the idea to fight with his own relatives, teachers and friends. He felt fighting with them was not worth just for kingdom. As these thoughts came into his mind, He lost all enthusiasm to participate in this war. His bow slipped from his hand. He had no choice but to seek help from Lord Krishna. He explained Lord Krishna his mental state and asked him for guidance and enlightenment.
धर्मक्षेत्रे कुरुक्षेत्रे समवेता युयुत्सवः ।
मामकाः पाण्डवाश्चैव किम् अकुर्वत संजय ॥॥१॥॥
Translation : Dhritarashtra asked: On the holy plain of Kurukshetra, assembled together my people and the sons of Pandu, desired to fight, what did they do?
दृष्ट्वा तु पाण्डवानीकं व्युढं दुर्योधनस्तदा ।
आचार्यमुपसंगम्य राजा वचनमब्रवीत ॥२॥
Translation : Sanjaya said: O King, after looking over the army arranged in military formation by the sons of Pandu, King Duryodhana went to his teacher and spoke the following words.
पश्चैतां पाण्डुपुत्राणामाचार्य महतीं चमूम् ।
व्यूढां द्रुपदपुत्रेण तव शिष्येण धीमता ॥३॥
Translation : O my teacher, behold the great army of the sons of Pandu, so expertly arranged by your intelligent disciple the son of Drupada.
अत्र शुरामहेष्वासा भीमार्जुनसमा युधि ।
युयुधानो विरातटश्च द्रुपदश्च महारथः ॥ ४ ॥
Translation : Here in this army are many heroic bowmen equal in fighting to Bhima and Arjuna great fighters like Yuyudhana, Virata and Drupada
धृष्टकेतुश्चेकितानः कशिराजश्च वीर्यमान् ।
पुरुजित् कुन्तिभोजश्च शैब्यश्च नरुपंगवः ॥ ५ ॥
Translation : There are also great, heroic, powerful fighters like Dhrishtaketu, Cekitana, Kasiraja, Purujit, Kuntibhoja and Saibya.
युधामन्युश्च विक्रान्त उत्तमौजाश्च वीर्यवान् ।
सौभद्रो द्रौपदेयाश्च सर्व एव महरथाः ॥ ६ ॥
Translation : There are the mighty Yudhamanyu, the very powerful Uttamauja, the son of Subhadra and the sons of Draupadi. All these warriors are great chariot fighters.
अस्माकं तु विशिष्टा ये तान्निबोध द्विजोत्तम ।
नायका मम सैन्यस्य संज्ञार्थं तान् ब्रवीमि ते ॥ ७ ॥
Translation : But for your information, O best of the brahmanas, let me tell you about the captains who are especially qualified to lead my military force.
भवान् भिष्मश्च कर्णश्च कृपश्च समितिञ्जयः ।
अश्वत्थामा विकर्णश्च सौमदत्तिस्तथैव च ॥ ८ ॥
Translation : There are personalities like you, Bhishma, Karna, Kripa, Asvatthama, Vikarna and the son of Somadatta called Bhurisrava, who are always victorious in battle.
अन्ये च बहवः शुरो मदर्थे त्यक्तजीविताः ।
नानाशस्त्रेप्रहरणाः सर्वे युद्धविशारदाः ॥ ९ ॥
Translation : There are many other heroes who are prepared to lay down their lives for my sake. All of them are well equipped with different kinds of weapons, and all are experienced in military science
अपर्याप्तं तदस्माकं बलं भीष्माभिरक्षितम् ।
पर्याप्तं त्विदमेतेषां बलं भीमाभिरक्षितम् ॥ १० ॥
Translation : Our strength is immeasurable, and we are perfectly protected by Grandfather Bhishma, whereas the strength of the Pandavas, carefully protected by Bhima, is limited.
अयनेषु च सर्वेषु यथाभागमवस्थिताः ।
भीष्ममेवाभिरक्षन्तु भवन्तः सर्व एव हि ॥ ११ ॥
Translation : All of you must now give full support to Grandfather Bhishma, as you stand at your respective strategic points of entrance into the phalanx of the army.
तस्य संजनयन्हर्षं कुरुवृद्ध पितामहः ।
सिंहनादं विनद्यच्चैः शङ्खंदध्मौ प्रतापवान् ॥ १२ ॥
Translation : Then Bhishma, the great valiant grandsire of the Kuru dynasty, the grandfather of the fighters, blew his conchshell very loudly, making a sound like the roar of a lion, giving Duryodhana joy.
ततः शङ्खाश्च भेर्येश्च पणवानकगोमुखाः ।
सहसैवाभ्यहन्यन्त स शब्दस्तुमुलोऽभवत् ॥ १३ ॥
Translation : After that, the conchshells, drums, bugles, trumpets and horns were all suddenly sounded, and the combined sound was tumultuous.
ततः श्वेतैर्हयैर्युक्ते महति स्यन्दने स्थितौ ।
मधवः पाण्डवश्वैव दिव्यौ शङखौ प्रदध्मतुः ॥ १४ ॥
Translation : On the other side, both Lord Krishna and Arjuna, stationed on a great chariot drawn by white horses, sounded their transcendental conchshells.
पाञ्चजन्यं हृषीकेशो देवदत्तं धनंजयः ।
पौण्ड्रं दध्मौ महाशङ्खं भीमकर्मा वृकोदरः ॥ १५ ॥
Translation : Lord Krishna blew His conchshell, called Pancajanya; Arjuna blew his, the Devadatta; and Bhima, the voracious eater and performer of herculean tasks, blew his terrific conchshell, called Paundra.
अनन्तविजयं राजा कुन्तीपुत्रौ युधिष्ठिरः ।
नकुलः सहदेवश्च सुघोषमणिपुष्पकौ ॥ १६ ॥
Translation : King Yudhishthira, the son of Kunti, blew his conchshell, the Ananta-vijaya, and Nakula and Sahadeva blew the Sughosa and Manipuspaka.
काश्यश्च परमेष्वासः शिखण्डि च महारथः ।
धृष्टध्युम्नो विराटश्च सात्यकिश्चापराजितः ॥ १७ ॥
Translation : That great archer the King of Kasi, the great fighter Sikhandi, Dhrishtadyumna, Virata, the unconquerable Satyaki
द्रुपदो द्रौपदेयाश्च सर्वशः पृथिवीपते ।
सौभद्रेश्च महाबाहुः श्ङखान्दध्मुः पृथक्पृथक् ॥ १८ ॥
Translation : Drupada, the sons of Draupadi, and the others, O King, such as the mighty-armed son of Subhadra, all blew their respective conchshells.
स घोषो धार्तराष्ट्राणां हृदयानि व्यदारयत् ।
नमश्च पृथिवीं चैव तुमुलो व्यनुनदयन् ॥ १९ ॥
Translation : The blowing of these different conchshells became uproarious. Vibrating both in the sky and on the earth, it shattered the hearts of the sons of Dhritarashtra.
अथ व्यवस्थितान्दृष्ट्वा धार्ततराष्ट्रान् कपिध्वजः ।
प्रवृत्ते शस्त्रसंपाते धनुरुद्यम्य पाण्डवः ।
।हृषीकेशं तदा वाक्यमिदमाह महीपते ॥ २० ॥
Translation : At that time Arjuna, the son of Pandu, seated in the chariot bearing the flag marked with Hanuman, took up his bow and prepared to shoot his arrows. O King, after looking at the sons of Dhritarashtra drawn in military array, Arjuna then spoke to Lord Krishna these words.
सेनयोरुभयोर्मध्ये रथं स्थापय मेऽच्युत ॥ २१ ॥
Translation : Arjuna said: O infallible one, please draw my chariot between the two armies so that.. (continued in next verse)
कैर्मया सह योध्दव्यमस्मिन् रणसमुद्यमे ॥ २२ ॥
Translation : I may see those present here, who desire to fight, and with whom I must contend in this great trial of arms.
तोत्स्यमानानवेक्षेऽहं य एतेऽत्र समागताः ।
धार्तराष्ट्रस्य दुर्बुध्देर्युध्दे प्रियचिकीर्षवः ॥ २३ ॥
Translation : Let me see those who have come here to fight, wishing to please the evil-minded son of Dhritarashtra.
एवमुक्तो हृषीकेशो गुडाकेशेन भारत ।
सेनयोरुभयोर्मध्ये स्थापयित्वा रथोत्तमम् ॥ २४ ॥
Translation : Sanjaya said: O descendant of Bharata, having thus been addressed by Arjuna, Lord Krishna drew up the fine chariot in the midst of the armies of both parties.
भीष्मद्रोणप्रमुखतः सर्वेषां च महीक्षिताम् ।
उवाच पार्थ पश्यैतान्समवेतान्कुरुनिति ॥ २५ ॥
Translation : In the presence of Bhishma, Drona and all the other chieftains of the world, the Lord said, Just behold, Partha, all the Kurus assembled here.
तत्रापश्यत्स्थितान्पार्थः पितृनथ पितामहान् ।
आचार्यान्मातुलान् भ्रातृन् पुत्रान् पौत्रान् सखींस्तथा ।
श्वशुतान् सुहृदश्चैव सेनयोरुभयोरपि ॥ २६ ॥
Translation : There Arjuna could see, within the midst of the armies of both parties, his fathers, grandfathers, teachers, maternal uncles, brothers, sons, grandsons, friends, and also his fathers-in-law and well-wishers.
तान्समीक्ष्य स कौन्तेयः सर्वान्बन्धूनवस्थितान् ।
कृपया परयाविष्टो विषीदन्निदमब्रवीत् ॥ २७ ॥
Translation : When the son of Kunti, Arjuna, saw all these different grades of friends and relatives, he became overwhelmed with compassion and spoke thus.
दृष्ट्वेमं स्वजनं कृष्ण युयुत्सुं समुपस्थितम् ।
सीदन्ति मम गात्राणि मुखं च परिशुष्यति ॥ २८ ॥
Translation : Arjuna said: My dear Krishna, seeing my friends and relatives present before me in such a fighting spirit, I feel the limbs of my body quivering and my mouth drying up.
वेपथुश्च शरीरे मे रोमहर्षश्च जायते ।
गाण्डीवं स्रंसते हस्तात्त्वक्चैव परिदह्यते ॥ २९ ॥
Translation : My whole body is trembling, my hair is standing on end, my bow Gandiva is slipping from my hand, and my skin is burning.
न च शक्नोम्यवस्थातुं भ्रमतीव च मे मनः ।
निमित्तानि च पश्यामि विपरीतानि केशव ॥ ३० ॥
Translation : I am now unable to stand here any longer. I am forgetting myself, and my mind is reeling. I see only causes of misfortune, O Krishna, killer of the Keshi demon.
न च श्रेयोऽनुपश्यामि हत्वा स्वजनमाहवे ।
न काङक्षे विजयं कृष्ण न च राज्यं सुखानि च ॥ ३१ ॥
Translation : I do not see how any good can come from killing my own kinsmen in this battle, nor can I, my dear Krishna, desire any subsequent victory, kingdom, or happiness.
किं नो राज्येन गोविन्द किं भोगैर्जीवितेन वा ।
येषामर्थे काङक्षितं नो राज्यं भोगाः सुखानि च ॥ ३२ ॥
Translation : O Govinda, of what avail to us are a kingdom, happiness or even life itself
त इमेऽवस्थीता युद्धे प्राणांस्त्यक्त्वा धनानि च ।
आचार्याः पितरः पुत्रास्तथैव च पितामहाः ॥ ३३ ॥
Translation : when all those for whom we may desire them are now arrayed on this battlefield? when teachers, fathers, sons, grandfathers,
मातुलाः श्वशुराः पौत्राः श्यालाः सम्बन्धिनस्तथा ।
एतान्न हन्तुमिच्छामि घ्नतोऽपि मधुसूदन ॥ ३४ ॥
Translation : maternal uncles, fathers-in-law, grandsons, brothers-in-law and other relatives are ready to give up their lives and properties and are standing before me, O Madhusudana. why should I wish to kill them, even though they might otherwise kill me? O maintainer of all living entities,
अपि त्रैलोक्यराज्यास्य हेतोः किं नु महिकृते ।
निह्त्य धार्तराष्ट्रान्नः का प्रीतिः स्याज्जनार्दन ॥ ३५ ॥
Translation : I am not prepared to fight with them even in exchange for the three worlds, let alone this earth. What pleasure will we derive from killing the sons of Dhritarashtra?
पापमेवाश्रयेदस्मान् हत्वैतानाततायिनः ।
तस्मान्नार्हा वयं हन्तुं धार्तराष्ट्रान् सबान्धवान् ।
स्वजनं हि कथं हत्वा सुखिनः स्याम माधव ॥ ३६ ॥
Translation : Sin will overcome us if we slay such aggressors. Therefore it is not proper for us to kill the sons of Dhritarashtra and our friends. What should we gain, O Krishna, husband of the goddess of fortune, and how could we be happy by killing our own kinsmen?
यद्यप्येते न पश्यन्ति लोभोपहतचेतसः ।
कुलक्षयकृतं दोषं मित्रद्रोहे च पातकम् ॥ ३७ ॥
Translation : Although these men, their hearts overtaken by greed, see no fault in killing one’s family or quarreling with friends,
कथं न ज्ञेयमस्माभिः पापादस्मान्निवर्तितुम् ।
कुलक्षयकृतं दोषं प्रपश्यबद्भिर्जनार्दन ॥ ३८ ॥
Translation : why should we, who can see the crime in destroying a family, engage in these acts of sin?
कुलक्षये प्रणश्यन्ति कुलधर्माः सनातनाः ।
धर्मे नष्टे कुलं कृत्स्नमधर्मोऽभिभवत्युत ॥ ३९ ॥
Translation : With the destruction of dynasty, the eternal family tradition is vanquished, and thus the rest of the family becomes involved in irreligion.
अधर्माभिभवात् कृष्ण प्रदुष्यन्ति कुलस्त्रियः ।
स्त्रीषु द्रुष्टासु वार्ष्णेय जायते वर्णसंकरः ॥ ४० ॥
Translation : When irreligion is prominent in the family, O Krishna, the women of the family become polluted, and from the degradation of womanhood, O descendant of Vrishni, comes unwanted progeny.
संकरो नरकायैव कुलघ्नानां कुलस्य च ।
पतन्ति पितरो ह्येषां लुप्तपिण्डोदकक्रियाः ॥ ४१ ॥
Translation : An increase of unwanted population certainly causes hellish life both for the family and for those who destroy the family tradition. The ancestors of such corrupt families fall down, because the performances for offering them food and water are entirely stopped.
दोषैरेतैः कुलघ्नानां वर्णसंकरकारकैः ।
उत्साद्यन्ते जातिधर्माः कुलधर्माश्च शाश्वताः ॥ ४२ ॥
Translation : By the evil deeds of those who destroy the family tradition and thus give rise to unwanted children, all kinds of community projects and family welfare activities are devastated.
उत्सन्नकुलधर्माणां मनुष्याणां जनार्दन ।
नरके नियतं वासो भवतीत्यनुशुश्रुम ॥ ४३ ॥
Translation : O Krishna, maintainer of the people, I have heard by disciplic succession that those who destroy family traditions dwell always in hell.
अहो बत महत् पापं कर्तुं व्यवसिता वयम् ।
यद् राज्यसुखलोभेन हन्तुं स्वजनमुद्यताः ॥ ४४ ॥
Translation : Alas, how strange it is that we are preparing to commit greatly sinful acts. Driven by the desire to enjoy royal happiness, we are intent on killing our own kinsmen.
यदि मामप्रतीकारमशस्त्रं शस्त्रपाणयः ।
धार्तराष्ट्रा रणे हन्युस्तन्मे क्षेमतरं भवेत् ॥ ४५ ॥
Translation : Better for me if the sons of Dhritarashtra, weapons in hand, were to kill me unarmed and unresisting on the battlefield.
एवमुक्त्वार्जुनः संख्ये रथोपस्थ उपाविशत् ।
विसृज्य सशरं चापं शोकसंविग्नमानसः ॥ ४६ ॥
Translation : Sanjaya said: Arjuna, having thus spoken on the battlefield, cast aside his bow and arrows and sat down on the chariot, his mind overwhelmed with grief.